[[fester:hardware_general]]

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fester:hardware_general [2017/06/24 17:57]
dan [Power Supply Units (PSUs) and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs)] Add NUT HCL link
fester:hardware_general [2017/06/24 18:02] (current)
dan Links to FreeNAS forum hardware recommendations and will it freenas forum
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 ====== General Hardware Recommendations ====== ====== General Hardware Recommendations ======
  
-In general: ​ You're building a server, so use server-grade hardware. ​ The "​gamer"​ motherboard you bought may work (may even work well), but isn't going to be ideal. ​ It probably won't support important features like ECC, it will most likely have a crappy Realtek NIC, and it will probably have other built-in hardware that you don't need and can't use, like a sound card.+In general: You're building a server, so use server-grade hardware. The "​gamer"​ motherboard you bought may work (may even work well), but isn't going to be ideal. It probably won't support important features like ECC, it will most likely have a crappy Realtek NIC, and it will probably have other built-in hardware that you don't need and can't use, like a sound card
 + 
 +In addition to the notes here, it's strongly recommended to read the [[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​resources/​hardware-recommendations-guide.12/​|FreeNAS Community Hardware Recommendations Guide]]. ​ It's kept updated by some of the more active and knowledgeable FreeNAS users. 
 + 
 +If you have questions about a particular build, ask on the [[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​forums/​will-it-freenas-freenas-build-discussion.70/​|Will It FreeNAS?]] forum.
  
 ===== Memory ===== ===== Memory =====
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   - The minimum amount of RAM for a FreeNAS system is 8GB. But Fester recommends a minimum of 16GB. Even more is better. More RAM is the best payoff to improve performance of your system, since ZFS will use it for caching.   - The minimum amount of RAM for a FreeNAS system is 8GB. But Fester recommends a minimum of 16GB. Even more is better. More RAM is the best payoff to improve performance of your system, since ZFS will use it for caching.
   - If you have time take a look at Cyberjock’s article entitled “ECC vs non-ECC RAM and ZFS”. It is detailed, but excellent ( __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​ecc-vs-non-ecc-ram-and-zfs.15449/​|ECC vs Non-ECC and ZFS]]__   - If you have time take a look at Cyberjock’s article entitled “ECC vs non-ECC RAM and ZFS”. It is detailed, but excellent ( __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​ecc-vs-non-ecc-ram-and-zfs.15449/​|ECC vs Non-ECC and ZFS]]__
-  - If you have time take a look at Jgreco’s article entitled “How To Fail … a guide to things not-to-do”. It mentions ECC memory amongst other things ( __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​how-to-fail-a-guide-to-things-not-to-do.40924/#​post-259705|How Not To Do Things]]__).+  - If you have time take a look at Jgreco’s article entitled “How To Fail … a guide to things not-to-do”. It mentions ECC memory amongst other things ( __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​how-to-fail-a-guide-to-things-not-to-do.40924/#​post-259705|How Not To Do Things]]__ ).
   - If you have time have a read through this. It talks about hardware choices and ECC memory ( __[[https://​www.reddit.com/​r/​homelab/​comments/​4iepsw/​freenas_all_disks_suddenly_degraded/​|FreeNAS All Disks Suddenly Degraded]]__).   - If you have time have a read through this. It talks about hardware choices and ECC memory ( __[[https://​www.reddit.com/​r/​homelab/​comments/​4iepsw/​freenas_all_disks_suddenly_degraded/​|FreeNAS All Disks Suddenly Degraded]]__).
  
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   - If you follow the advice on ECC memory then the processor must support ECC memory (not all do). All Xeon CPUs do, as do many Pentiums, Celerons, and Core i3 CPUs. No Core i5 or Core i7 CPUs support ECC.   - If you follow the advice on ECC memory then the processor must support ECC memory (not all do). All Xeon CPUs do, as do many Pentiums, Celerons, and Core i3 CPUs. No Core i5 or Core i7 CPUs support ECC.
   - Home users with modest demands generally do not require expensive dual or multiprocessor setups.   - Home users with modest demands generally do not require expensive dual or multiprocessor setups.
-  - If using encryption select a processor that supports AES-NI. Otherwise, don’t use encryption; it results in too much of a performance hit.  In fact, unless you have a specific legal requirement for full-disk encryption, don't use it.  The risk of data loss is too great.+  - If using encryption select a processor that supports AES-NI. Otherwise, don’t use encryption; it results in too much of a performance hit. In fact, unless you have a specific legal requirement for full-disk encryption, don't use it. The risk of data loss is too great.
   - Most modern (i.e., Sandy Bridge or newer) Intel CPUs will have adequate performance for any sort of file sharing over a gigabit network.   - Most modern (i.e., Sandy Bridge or newer) Intel CPUs will have adequate performance for any sort of file sharing over a gigabit network.
  
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   - Use NAS recommended HDDs.   - Use NAS recommended HDDs.
-  - __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​checking-for-tler-erc-etc-support-on-a-drive.27126/​|TLER]]__ is a useful feature to have on NAS HDDs.+  - __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​checking-for-tler-erc-etc-support-on-a-drive.27126/​|TLER]]__is a useful feature to have on NAS HDDs.
   - Use enough HDDs in your system so you can employ some sort of redundancy within the zpool/s and the vdev/s. If you aim for a minimum of 4 this will allow RAIDZ2 (ooooh yummy).   - Use enough HDDs in your system so you can employ some sort of redundancy within the zpool/s and the vdev/s. If you aim for a minimum of 4 this will allow RAIDZ2 (ooooh yummy).
  
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   - The FreeNAS OS must reside on a separate drive. It cannot be installed on the HDD/s you will use for data storage.   - The FreeNAS OS must reside on a separate drive. It cannot be installed on the HDD/s you will use for data storage.
   - A minimum of 16GB capacity for the FreeNAS boot device is recommended. Any larger than 32 GB is wasteful.   - A minimum of 16GB capacity for the FreeNAS boot device is recommended. Any larger than 32 GB is wasteful.
-  - A SATA DOM or Solid State Device (SSD) is recommended. If your budget does not stretch this far you can use a high quality USB device. ​ If you are using a USB stick, consider using two, and mirroring them.+  - A SATA DOM or Solid State Device (SSD) is recommended. If your budget does not stretch this far you can use a high quality USB device. If you are using a USB stick, consider using two, and mirroring them.
  
 ===== Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) and RAID Controllers ===== ===== Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) and RAID Controllers =====
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   - Don’t buy low quality PSUs.   - Don’t buy low quality PSUs.
   - When selecting a PSU for a quiet server build chose one that will operate at around 50% – 60% of its rated maximum wattage. So if your server draws 300W, select a PSU with a maximum rating of around 600W.   - When selecting a PSU for a quiet server build chose one that will operate at around 50% – 60% of its rated maximum wattage. So if your server draws 300W, select a PSU with a maximum rating of around 600W.
-  - If you have time have a look at __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​proper-power-supply-sizing-guidance.38811/​|this]]__ article ​by Jgreco. It is excellent and should help.+  - If you have time have a look at __[[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​proper-power-supply-sizing-guidance.38811/​|this]]__article ​by Jgreco. It is excellent and should help.
   - If your budget allows, invest in an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). If your budget doesn'​t allow, adjust your budget until it does. I know it’s not the most seductive bit of kit (incidentally,​ the most seductive bit of kit I ever bought was a leather thong, but that’s another story) and it’s expensive (the UPS, not the thong!), but it is good practice to use one. Although the ZFS file system, along with the ZIL is designed to stop data corruption when experiencing a power outage, apparently it can still happen (I don’t know how or why??).   - If your budget allows, invest in an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). If your budget doesn'​t allow, adjust your budget until it does. I know it’s not the most seductive bit of kit (incidentally,​ the most seductive bit of kit I ever bought was a leather thong, but that’s another story) and it’s expensive (the UPS, not the thong!), but it is good practice to use one. Although the ZFS file system, along with the ZIL is designed to stop data corruption when experiencing a power outage, apparently it can still happen (I don’t know how or why??).
   - Some server PSUs will not work with a UPS that uses a simulated sine wave output. Some PSUs don’t seem to mind. The reasons are beyond the scope of this guide. I have seen the output of some simulated sine wave UPSs on an oscilloscope and some of them are shockingly bad and do not even come close to a sine wave. If you don’t want to take a chance, then get a UPS that provides a proper sine wave at its output. Unfortunately,​ this will cost you more.   - Some server PSUs will not work with a UPS that uses a simulated sine wave output. Some PSUs don’t seem to mind. The reasons are beyond the scope of this guide. I have seen the output of some simulated sine wave UPSs on an oscilloscope and some of them are shockingly bad and do not even come close to a sine wave. If you don’t want to take a chance, then get a UPS that provides a proper sine wave at its output. Unfortunately,​ this will cost you more.
   - Whatever UPS you choose make sure it is supported on the Network UPS Tools (NUT) [[http://​networkupstools.org/​stable-hcl.html|hardware compatibility list]]. This will allow the server via an attached USB, serial, or network cable to monitor the UPS.   - Whatever UPS you choose make sure it is supported on the Network UPS Tools (NUT) [[http://​networkupstools.org/​stable-hcl.html|hardware compatibility list]]. This will allow the server via an attached USB, serial, or network cable to monitor the UPS.
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 ===== Miscellaneous ===== ===== Miscellaneous =====
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   - Do not use RAIDZ1, as it has only 1 disk redundancy (Z2 has 2 disk redundancy and Z3 has 3 disk redundancy). THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT!   - Do not use RAIDZ1, as it has only 1 disk redundancy (Z2 has 2 disk redundancy and Z3 has 3 disk redundancy). THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT!
   - Remember when any vdev fails in a pool it takes the entire pool with it!   - Remember when any vdev fails in a pool it takes the entire pool with it!
-  - Read Cyberjock'​s [[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​slideshow-explaining-vdev-zpool-zil-and-l2arc-for-noobs.7775/​|guide to ZFS for newbies]]. ​ Then read it again. ​ It would probably be worth reading it a third time.+  - Read Cyberjock'​s [[https://​forums.freenas.org/​index.php?​threads/​slideshow-explaining-vdev-zpool-zil-and-l2arc-for-noobs.7775/​|guide to ZFS for newbies]]. Then read it again. It would probably be worth reading it a third time.
   - Home users will generally not benefit from a SLOG or L2ARC. More RAM is a better buy.   - Home users will generally not benefit from a SLOG or L2ARC. More RAM is a better buy.
  
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   - No matter how well you train them, don’t use ferrets to build your server (that’s 3 years of my life I’m not getting back).   - No matter how well you train them, don’t use ferrets to build your server (that’s 3 years of my life I’m not getting back).
   - Same goes for pigeons (but they can be trained to make great cocktails).   - Same goes for pigeons (but they can be trained to make great cocktails).
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  • fester/hardware_general.txt
  • Last modified: 2017/06/24 18:02
  • by dan